Having gotten used to be told we’re eating too much of everything, we’re now being told we’re NOT EATING ENOUGH FIBRE!

Earlier this month (January 2019), the Lancet published a study that concluded that:

“People who eat higher levels of dietary fibre and wholegrains have lower rates of non-communicable disease”

(Translate as reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colorectal cancer)

How much fibre do I need?

30g a day.  Brace yourself for a telling off – only 9% of UK adults get the recommended amount.

So 91% of us DON’T. Tut-tut.

I’m in.  What should I eat?

You may have heard this health story on the news last week.  The coverage I heard led with the advice to eat more wholegrain breads and cereals.

NOOOOO! It is highly unlikely that there is any reason why you would need to INCREASE your bread and cereal intake.  Substitute the white breads and cereals you currently eat for wholegrain varieties, but do not increase intake.

Know your food labels..

High fibre is defined as greater than or equal to 6g of fibre in 100g of product. The table below shows a range of high fibre foods. Tuck in.

g fibre / 100g
Chia seeds34.4
Pumpkin Seeds18.4
Sesame seeds14
Almonds (with skins)12.5
High fibre cereal (average)11
Pine nuts10.7
Sunflower seeds8.6
Peanuts (with skins)8.4
Kidney beans7.8
Brazil nuts7.5
Wholemeal bread (average)6.8

See? Not just bread!

Obviously, portion size matters

We don’t eat food in 100g portions. So to give this some perspective:

  • The average slice of high fibre bread contains no more than 3g of fibre per slice.
  • 15g (1 tablespoon) of chia seeds will get you approximately 6g of fibre.
  • Half a tin of chickpeas gets you 7g of fibre.

So without getting bogged down with mathematics , you can see that fibre can be increased more efficiently with foods that are higher in fibre than wholemeal / wholegrain bread. Not to mention increasing variety in your diet, and therefore nutrients…

Don’t forget about fruit and vegetables…

While most fruit and vegetables may have less than 6g of fibre per 100g, quantity matters. Anyone heard the “5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day” message? This could clock up around 15-20g of fibre a day.


The latest Health Survey in NI reports a reduction in fruit and vegetable intake. The “5-a-day” message is well rehearsed, but the number of people who manage to include 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day has gone from 43% in 2016/2017, to 38% in 2017/2018. Oh dear. Tut-tut, again.

So plenty of room for improvement, but not for everyone…

Not everyone will be able to tolerate 30g of fibre a day.  This is intended as general information only. Get individual advice if you have any doubts about what is right for you.

Milk. It used to be so simple. Milk came from cows.

Not any longer….oat milk, rice milk, cashew milk, almond milk, soya milk, coconut milk, hazelnut milk…it goes on and on..

World Milk Day – not what it used to be. Dairy farmers must be raging.


The significance of cow’s milk (and milk products like cheese and yoghurt) in our diet has mainly been to provide calcium.

Animal milk is often heavily promoted as being our main source of calcium.

This is misleading and often gets wrongly interpreted as meaning that animal milk contains more calcium than most other foods.

But this is not necessarily the case. Milk and milk products are simply one of a number of calcium sources – just ask your vegan friend.

Why do I need calcium anyway?

Calcium has several functions in the body. You probably already know that most of our body calcium is used for bone structure* and teeth but calcium is also needed for muscle contraction including heartbeat, nerve function, hormone functions and blood clotting.

*Calcium does not work alone – other bone healthy nutrients are vitamin D, vitamin K, boron, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc….case closed regarding eating as wide and varied a diet as possible.

How much do I need?

Most adults need an average daily intake of 700mg of calcium, with some exceptions – breastfeeding mothers and postmenopausal women need more at 1200mg per day.

[There are also a number of medical conditions that may require higher calcium intakes eg osteoporosis, coeliac disease, or inflammatory bowel disease.  Check with your health professional]

Where can I get it?

Yes, dairy foods are a good source of calcium, but it is also found in many non-dairy foods.  Find a list of good calcium sources here.
(Derived from information available at National Osteoporosis Society)

Final word

Drink animal milk, eat cheese and dairy yoghurt ‘til the cows come home if you like and tolerate them.

Just don’t think you must eat them for adequate calcium.

Enjoy a wide variety of other calcium containing foods, safe in the knowledge that vegans have a skeleton too.

The days of being ‘entertained’ by Gillian McKeith collecting poo in tupperware may be over but, like it or not, she had a point! Not the ‘putting it in a tupperware’ bit, but the ‘getting familiar with it’ bit!

Some of us have a chance to get acquainted with our waste matter daily, and it’s a comfortable and reliable relationship. For others, it can get prickly and punctuated with strain or pain. Who has time for constipation these days? Move proceedings along with fibre.  Therapy for your bowel.

Not for everyone

High fibre may not be advisable if you have IBS or other medical condition that has reduced fibre as part of the treatment plan – speak to your GP or dietitian if you are unsure if you should increase or decrease your fibre intake.

How much do I need?

The recommended fibre intake for adults is 30g per day (this must be alongside a good fluid intake). Current UK national average fibre intake is 15-21g per day so eat up!

Where can I find fibre?

20 High Fibre Foods

This is NOT a complete list of high fibre foods. All fruit, vegetables, beans, legumes, pulses, nuts, seeds and wholegrain products will contain useful amounts of fibre.
Fibre SourceFibre (g) per 100g
Linseed / Flaxseed (ground)41.2
Chia seeds37.5
Linseed / Flaxseed (whole)28
Legume pastas (varies)23
All Bran15
Shredded Wheat10.1
Muesli / Granola (varies)8
Sesame seeds7.9
Yellow split peas5.9
Wholemeal bread5.8
Sunflower seeds5.7
Kidney beans5.5
Brazil nuts5.4

There is probably no need to count grams of fibre – if you are eating enough fruit and vegetables, choosing wholemeal / wholegrain versions of breads, cereals, rice and pasta, enjoy eating nuts, seeds and pulses, then you are likely getting enough fibre – but ultimately, your bowel movements will be your best indicator.

(For reference, a food can be considered high fibre if it contains 6g (or more) of fibre per 100g. You will find this information on food labels).

And by the way…

The benefits of fibre do not end with keeping you “regular”. Fibre is also important for control of:

  • Cholesterol
  • Blood pressure
  • Blood glucose
  • Colorectal cancer risk
  • Weight

So why wouldn’t you eat more?

Final word

In honour of World Digestive Health Day 2018, resolve to improve your relationship with your bowels, keep them happy with more fibre if necessary, and get familiar with your ‘output’.

But don’t put it in a tupperware.

Going too far.

Coeliac Awareness Week 14-20th May 2018

What is Coeliac Disease?

NHS Choices provides a comprehensive outline of what coeliac disease is, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Coeliac UK provide comprehensive information regarding the gluten free diet.

This short article covers some of the more obscure questions about coeliac disease and the gluten-free diet.

Incidence of Coeliac Disease

According to Coeliac UK, 1 in 100 people have coeliac disease.

Across the UK, only 24% of people have been diagnosed.

Here in Northern Ireland, the diagnosis rate is higher at 39% (as per 2014 data). However this also means 61% are undiagnosed – SO OVER 11,000 PEOPLE IN NORTHERN IRELAND DON’T YET KNOW THEY HAVE COELIAC DISEASE.

Who should get checked for coeliac disease?

See your GP for a coeliac screen if you have:

  • the common symptoms
  • a first degree relative (parent, sibling, child) with coeliac disease.

Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity

If you experience the symptoms of coeliac disease but testing has excluded this diagnosis, you may have non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Your symptoms will improve on a gluten free diet. This is an emerging area of research and you can find out more at Coeliac UK.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

There is overlap between the symptoms of coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity and IBS.

  • Treatment for coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity is a gluten free diet.
  • Treatment for IBS is often the low FODMAP diet.

The low FODMAP diet coincidently excludes many gluten sources. So if you feel better, it’s impossible to know whether that is because of reducing FODMAPs or cutting out gluten.

No condition can be managed well without knowing what is causing the problem.

Get the diagnosis right, and the right treatment will follow.

I’ve cut out gluten already – can I still test for coeliac disease?

No – coeliac disease cannot be diagnosed if you have been avoiding foods containing gluten.

  • NICE (National Institute of Health and Care Excellence) advise that before being tested, people need to follow a diet containing gluten for at least 6 weeks.
  • Coeliac UK recommend “to eat some gluten in more than one meal every day for at least 6 weeks before testing”.

What is not helpful is that no specific advice is given regarding quantity – “some” does not suggest the need for large amounts so eating a bowl of gluten containing cereal and a slice of gluten containing bread may be sufficient, provided this is included daily over the recommended 6 week period.

This reinforces the importance of being tested for coeliac disease BEFORE avoiding gluten.

Should I use a home testing kit?

That depends on your reason for doing so.

If you’re considering a gluten free diet for general health reasons, and have no troublesome symptoms or signs of coeliac disease, then a negative result from a home testing kit may give you some re-assurance that should you occasionally, or accidently, eat a gluten containing food you will not be causing any gut damage.

If the home test kit suggests a positive coeliac outcome, see your GP for a formal test BEFORE you proceed to cutting out gluten.

If you have suspicions that you may have coeliac disease, it is in your best interests to take advantage of the full range of support available on the NHS. You will have annual review of your symptoms, blood retests, and access to other services if required – for example, scans to check bone density.

If you self-diagnosis and self-manage, you may be inadvertently overlooking other problems.

Take home messages

Are you one of the undiagnosed 11,000? See your GP. Get tested.

Does your parent, sibling or child have coeliac disease? See your GP. Get tested.

Thinking of trying a gluten free diet? If you have any suspicions that gluten may be causing a problem…See your GP. Get tested.

The day we’ve all been waiting for…Friday 11th May 2018 is National Eat What You Want Day!!


WARNING – If you enjoy food like avocado, nuts, olive oil, salmon or greek yoghurt for example, but often avoid them in favour of low fat or diet products, then eating what you want could seriously improve your health. Read on.

If you only like food served or delivered in a box and washed down with coloured, sweet liquids, then eating what you want could seriously damage your health. Read on at your peril.


Open Letter to the Founder of National Eat What You Want Day 2018,

Thank you…for giving me permission to eat what I want today. Thank you…for allowing me to make my own food decisions today. Thank you…for allowing me to have an independent thought.

For 364 days of the year, I am burdened with eating food I don’t want to eat. For one day only, I will eat what I want and I will enjoy it.

But I am worried. If people get the ‘taste’ for eating what they want today, isn’t there a possibility they might want to do that for the remaining 364 days?

I don’t think we can take that chance. I appeal to you to abolish National Eat What You Want Day – the risks simply outweigh the benefits.

Yours faithfully, Kate McCulla Nutrition

OK, I’m being flippant, and this National Day was likely conceived in good humour, but it does point a finger at an important problem – the reason we choose food has become distorted. We decide to eat (or not eat) food for a multitude of reasons, often at the expense of what we actually want.

How often do you choose food because:

  • I’m ‘allowed’ it
  • I’m on a diet
  • I’m not on a diet
  • It’s only got x calories / x ‘points’ / x ‘syns’
  • It’s low fat
  • It’s sugar free
  • It’s Friday evening
  • I’ve had a bad day
  • It’s there
  • Someone else is eating it
  • The label says ‘guilt free’
  • And so on..

How often do we ask ourselves what we actually want to eat?

This should be the main reason for choosing food.

But this scares you.

Food rules have become so dominant, you’re scared that if you eat what you want, all you will want to eat is ‘rubbish’.

This is a common reaction if you often diet, and cut out all ‘rubbish’ at these times. Of course you’re going to be drawn to this food. Diet studies often show that when not allowed something we want it more. This is not a permanent preference. It is a temporary rebellion.

Foods are less appealing the more you are exposed to them and provided you are freely allowed to eat them if you choose to. This effect is called the Habituation Response.

However, the habituation response is diminished for dieters because they often do not feel like they are fully free to make their own food decisions, so the ‘forbidden foods’ never get a chance to lose their appeal.

In other words, making food decisions based on diet rules, at the expense of considering what food you want, keeps ‘problem’ foods as just that – problems.

In addition to that, I bet most of you will have had the following experience:

You want chocolate but you’re ‘trying to be good’ or lose weight.

So you eat an apple. Didn’t hit the spot.
Then a rice cake. Didn’t hit the spot.
Next a diet yoghurt. Didn’t hit the spot.
Then maybe a plain biscuit….No, still not satisfied.
Ah heck…where’s the chocolate? Having eaten your way around the kitchen, you end up eating what you wanted in the first place.

So on National Eat What You Want Day 2018, you have 2 choices:

  1. Eat anything and everything today in unlimited quantities – you are most likely to choose stereotypical ‘bad’ foods – and go back to your food battle for the next 364 days, or
  2. Consider what it is you really want to eat, what you are going to savour and enjoy, what is going to satisfy. You may surprise yourself with the realisation that you don’t always want what you might consider ‘bad’ foods and that given the choice, your choices may be quite balanced. You have 365 days a year to practice this. And by the end of that year, you might even be closer to your weight goals.

Happy National Eat What You Want…

….today, and every other day ending in Y.

Below average. That’s what we, the residents of Northern Ireland are.


  • fruit
  • vegetables
  • fibre
  • oily fish

Lower than the UK average. Below average. Must try harder.

However, we eat TOO MUCH:

  • saturated fat
  • processed meat
  • sugar
  • salt

More than the UK average. Above average. Hoorayyyyy….no, wait, that’s not good.

It’s Nutrition and Hydration Week 2018.  Let’s try harder this week. Let’s try to be average.

One week, 7 days, endless opportunities to strive for improvement.  Show the UK what we’re made of (although at the moment that’s mainly saturated fat, sugar and salt).

 7 days, 7 nutrition and hydration challenges

  1. 82% of Northern Ireland adults do not eat the recommended 5 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Play to win – eat one extra piece of fruit or larger portion of salad or vegetables every day this week.
  2. The recommended daily intake of fibre is 30g / day. The average intake is 13g / day. Increase fibre by eating more fruit and vegetables, pulses like lentils and beans, whole nuts and seeds, or wholegrain breads, low sugar cereals, rice or pasta.
  3. It is recommended to eat at least one 140g portion of oily fish a week. We eat on average 29g a week. Eat oily fish (eg salmon, mackerel, herring, sardines, pilchards) at least once this week – fresh or tinned. Go on, you do like them.
  4. It is advised that less than 11% of our total energy needs should be from saturated fat. We get an average of 13%. The media headlines have misguidedly convinced us that fat is no longer the villain. But not all fats are equal. For example, the fat around a chop is not the same as the fat in olive oil. Reduce saturated fat by removing all visible fat from meat, choose reduced fat meat options and low fat dairy produce.
  5. Added sugars should provide no more than 5% of our energy needs – Northern Ireland adults average over 12% with the main sources being table sugar, fizzy drinks, sugary cereal, bakery products and confectionery. But you’re off most of this for Lent anyway, so keep up the good work.
  6. Salt should be limited to 6g or under a day. We average over 8g / day. The biggest contributors are table salt, breads, cereals and meat products. Taste your food before you add salt. Try alternatives like pepper, chilli flakes, scallions, diced onion or get creative with herbs and other spices.
  7. Fluid – are you drinking enough? (You know alcohol doesn’t count). Keep fluids calorie free as far as possible. Enough to keep your pee pale. Yes, you’ll have to look.

Come on people. Let’s at least be average. It won’t kill us.

See the full report at https://www.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/ndnsfullreport.pdf

Eat yourself better?

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition causing symptoms that may include:

  • widespread pain
  • extreme tiredness
  • stiffness
  • sleeping problems
  • memory problems
  • headaches
  • irritable bowel.

Estimates suggest that 1 in 20 people are affected by fibromyalgia, and it is known to affect roughly 7 times more women than men.

Cause of fibromyalgia

The NHS acknowledges that the exact cause of fibromyalgia is unknown, but the symptoms are thought to be caused by chemicals in the brain changing the way the nervous system processes pain messages.

It is widely accepted that the digestive system and brain ‘communicate’ with each other via the nervous system, or hormonal and chemical signalling.  While this does not prove a link between food and fibromyalgia, it’s enough to raise the possibility that there is a link.

Despite this, the medical consensus continues to be that food does not have a role to play in the development or management of fibromyalgia, despite acknowledgement that the exact cause is unknown.

Management of fibromyalgia

Current management centres around medication, alongside talking therapies and exercise or relaxation techniques. The focus is on managing symptoms, with little to no consideration given to the role food may play.  This is because there is no evidence of a “one size fits all” diet for fibromyalgia. But instead of dismissing a dietary role, the possibility of an individualised dietary approach should be considered.

Elimination Diet

You are the best person to determine if food helps or aggravates your symptoms.  And there is a way to find out – by trying an elimination diet.  This diet includes eating a limited range of foods that are least likely to cause symptoms, while cutting out foods that contain food substances with the most potential to trigger symptoms in susceptible individuals.  If you experience a notable reduction in your symptoms, this suggests that food does have a role to play in your condition.  Next, you will reintroduce and ‘test’ foods that you had excluded, one at a time, and monitor your symptoms.  If your symptoms get worse, you will have identified a food trigger.  In this way, you are using your personal experiences to manage your symptoms.

Contact Kate

If you have fibromyalgia and continue to suffer despite best medical management, contact me for a no-obligation conversation so you can make an informed decision about whether this is an approach you might want to try.


Remission (im)possible?

In Northern Ireland, over 71,000 people have Type 2 diabetes (Public Health Agency, 2015). There are likely to be many more as yet undiagnosed cases. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by high blood glucose levels, which will cause future health problems if left untreated.

Globally, over 80% of people with Type 2 diabetes are overweight at diagnosis. It is widely accepted that increasing levels of obesity increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, managing weight is going to reduce your risk of developing diabetes.

But what if I already have Type 2 diabetes? Can it be reversed?

An on-going clinical trial called DiRECT (Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial) released preliminary results before Christmas, with impressive results.

Participants were recruited within 6 years of diagnosis, and all were overweight. They followed an 800 calorie diet of specially formulated soups and shakes for 8 to 20 weeks.

The study found that 86% of participants who lost ≥15kg (2st 5lbs) achieved remission (that is, blood glucose levels could be maintained at healthy levels without the use of medication).

Does this mean that I have a high chance of achieving remission?

Maybe. That’s not the conviction you might want but it seems probable that remission is most likely in the early years post diagnosis, and provided a significant weight loss is achieved.

It is important to be clear that the participants achieved remission, not cure. It remains to be seen how long the remission state lasts. It would seem plausible that if weight loss was the key to achieving remission, then keeping weight off will be a key strategy in staying in remission. However, this also highlights that taking action to lose weight to prevent Type 2 diabetes may be a safer bet.

Could a low calorie diet help me?

If you are affected by diabetes and want help determining if a low calorie diet may be suitable for you, contact me for a no-obligation conversation about the pros and cons of this approach. Do not attempt a low calorie diet independently, especially if you are using tablets or insulin to manage your Type 2 diabetes, or other medications such as blood pressure tablets.

Further information

The study is not yet complete so this dietary approach to achieving remission is NOT currently available on the NHS. Get more information at https://blogs.diabetes.org.uk.

The food of love…

Valentine’s Day approaches, and all I’m hearing is “Can food really be an aphrodisiac?” (I’m not actually, but I was quite curious myself…).

The foods which are commonly thought to have aphrodisiac properties includes:

Almonds, asparagus, avocados, banana, basil, cherries, chillies, dark chocolate, figs, garlic, honey, oysters, pomegranates, red wine, strawberries, watermelon and walnuts.

How are they supposed to ‘work’?

Their amazing powers are attributed to nutrient content or shape and aroma.

Nutrient content

The foods above contain a range of vitamins (B vitamins, vitamins A, C, E) and minerals (boron, magnesium, selenium, zinc) or other food chemicals like resveratrol (red wine) or phenylethyline (chocolate).  These are reported to be involved in the production of sex hormones or to improve blood circulation.

What’s not clear is how quickly this may have an effect.  So preparing an aphrodisiac packed dinner for say 7pm and hoping for any significant effect by 10pm may seem a little unlikely!

Shape and aroma

I have nothing to add! Except to say that this provides proof (if any were needed) that the ‘powers’ of these foods reside in your head!

The truth

Good nutrition is important for fertility and sex hormone production (eg oestrogen, progesterone, testosterone).  The hormone most closely linked to libido is testosterone.  The nutrients needed for the production of testosterone are zinc, vitamin A and vitamin D.

But this relies on consistent, 365 days a year, good nutrition.  Top loading on supposedly aphrodisiac foods on the 14th February will not have any real effect.  The affect from the power of the mind is another story.

I’m all for anything that gets people eating well, so go right ahead and indulge in any or all of the above foods.  As for their impact beyond your health and general wellbeing, I DO NOT WANT TO KNOW. Happy Valentine’s Day!


What do you get when you add sugar to fruit? Jam
What do you get when you add sugar to cocoa? Chocolate
What do you get when you add sugar to yoghurt? Yoghurt.

When is a yoghurt not a yoghurt?  I would argue that when multiple other ingredients are added, most damagingly sugar, the end product may contain yoghurt as its main ingredient, but should we still call it yoghurt?  We don’t call cake ‘flour’ even though flour is the main ingredient.

Yoghurt has a bit of a health food status, and deservedly so if we’re talking about natural yoghurt or plain Greek yoghurts.  These contain naturally occurring milk sugars but no added sugars.  It’s the added sugars we need to look out for.

Public health bodies tell us that our diet contains too much sugar and that yoghurts are one of a group of 9 food categories that contribute most of the sugars in the UK diet.

My guess is that people eat yoghurts mainly because they like them, but also, I suspect, because they think they are ‘healthy’ and ‘good for you’.   But this depends on which type or brand is chosen.

Nutritionally, yoghurts should be, and can be, a good source of protein and calcium. But don’t be misled into assuming all yoghurts are virtuous.

Your yoghurt of choice will most likely be based on what you like the taste of.   But start having a look at the nutrition information too. Read on for guidance on how to choose a yoghurt of good nutritional quality, and hopefully a taste you’ll also enjoy.

Natural Yoghurts

Like them or loathe them, natural yoghurt is pure, unadulterated…..yoghurt!

Any natural yoghurt can be included in your food choices regularly…if you like them.  The main nutritional consideration may be deciding between the fat free and fat containing varieties.

If you don’t like them, you’re not going to eat them.  But if you choose your yoghurts for their health credentials, and decide to opt for a flavoured yoghurt, then stick to the nutritional profile of a natural yoghurt as far as is possible.

What does that mean?

The average sugar content of natural and Greek style yoghurt is approximately 6g per 100g (which is the natural milk sugar lactose), and the average protein content of natural yoghurt is approximately 6g per 100g. 

The sugar (lactose) is balanced with the protein content.

We are not going to get many flavoured yoghurts with this balance, but we can come to a reasonable compromise (see below).

Flavoured yoghurts

Flavoured yoghurts have widely varying amounts of added sugar, ranging from no added sugar (usually sweetened with artificial sweetener), to over 19g of sugar per 100g.  Since the average sugar content (lactose) of natural yoghurts is 6g per 100g, we can roughly assume that anything over 6g of sugar per 100g of flavoured yoghurt is added sugar (the type we need to keep to a minimum).

To make matters worse, the worst added sugar offenders often come in the biggest individual pot sizes.  For example, if a yoghurt contains 19g of sugar per 100g, but the pot size is 150g, then the amount of sugar in one pot is 28.5g (therefore approximately 22.5g, or 4-5 teaspoons of added sugar).

If you care about reducing your sugar intake, and enjoy flavoured yoghurts, I suggest using a general guide of aiming to keep sugar content at 10g per 100g or lower.

Remembering that natural yoghurts have a balance of sugar to protein, use a general guide of aiming for protein content of 5g per 100g or more.

Where this is not possible, my over-riding suggestion is for protein content to be at least ½ of sugar content.  For example, if sugar content is 12g / 100g, look for a protein content of at least 6g/100g.

Click here for a range of flavoured yoghurts that fit these criteria.  Of these, your choice will be furthered influenced by fat content or use of artificial sweeteners for example.  Find that brands and flavours you like, eat and enjoy.

And finally, click here for a range of yoghurts that are too high in sugar (and maybe even cream and butter – check the ingredients list) to be wholesome for everyday consumption.

So back to one of the original questions…

What do you get if you add sugar to yoghurt?  In some cases, dessert.